I dedicate this timeline and the accompanying historical notes with respect and affection to the following:
* To both my mothers Eleanor and Speranza, to my brothers in Sardinia and their families, to my marvelous adorable husband David, to my sons and their ladies, and to all my ancestors in Italy, Sardinia, and wherever else they may be.
*To all my colleagues and friends in the Historical Fiction writing community, with particular pride in all who write stories set in ancient Rome, but with great gratitude to all of you for your inspiration, dedication and determination to keep alive history and the people who live it.
Timeline 1. of ancient Rome and its World:
c. 814 Carthage is founded by Phoenician settlers
c. 800 The Etruscan culture emerges in Italy.
c. 800-500 The Greeks colonize the western Mediterranean.
c. 776 The Earliest recorded Olympic Games occur in Greece.
c. 771 Romulus is born
c. 753 Rome is traditionally founded. Numa Pompilius, Rome’s second king, is born.
c. 750 Homer composes the Iliad and Odyssey. Corinthian Greeks establish Syracuse in Sicily.
c. 715 Numa becomes king.
c. 700-600 Greek colonies such as Croton, Sybaris, and Rhegium, are established in southern Italy.
c. 680-627 Assyrian empire at its greatest, pressure from its invasions force migrations of artisans into other regions.
c. 672 Tullus Hostilius becomes king of Rome.
c. 655 Demaratus of Corinth flees to Etruscan Tarquinia and becomes father of Rome’s fifth king Tarquinius Priscus
c. 640 Ancus Marcius becomes king of Rome.
c. 616 T Priscus becomes king of Rome.
c. 578 Servius Tullius becomes king of Rome
c. 550-500 Carthage imposes its dominance over much of Sardinia and western Sicily
c. 546 Greek Phocaean refugees settle at Alalia in Corsica
c. 540-535 Battle of the Sardinian Sea where allied Carthaginian and Etruscan fleets are defeated by the Phocaeans, but the Greeks abandon Corsica
c. 534 T Superbus becomes last king of Rome
c. 524 Greek Cumae defeats an invading Etruscan army
c. 510 Dorieus of Sparta killed in western Sicily and Croton destroys Sybaris in southern Italy.
c. 510-500 Hasdrubal is killed in Sardinia.
c. 509 First treaty between Rome and Carthage, Rome expels Superbus and creates a republic.
c. 508-496 Etruscan king Porsena makes war on Rome, Superbus seeks help from Greek Cumae, Latin League is defeated by Rome at Lake Regillus and Superbus dies in exile in Cumae.
Rome’s monarchy ends after more than 250 years (so the traditional kinglist has it).